Handy-Dandy Conversion Chart

for those of you who don't yet have a scale (get a scale already)

The first non-recipe post I wanted to share is an updated version of my volume-to-weight conversion chart. Except in certain instances, I’m not going to give volume amounts for bread recipes, because they are a pain to sort out and they undermine the fact that bread recipes are essentially ratios of ingredients by weight. (I’ll be doing a post on baker’s math soon, so more on that later.)

So you are going to need gram scales to use my recipes. And yes, I said scales, plural—one for quantities of ingredients smaller than 5 grams, where accuracy is important, and another for larger quantities. For tiny amounts, I currently recommend the one pictured above, which is accurate to about 0.5 grams, has a capacity of 1000 grams (meaning you could use it exclusively if need be; this makes it a good “travel” scale for baking on vacation), and only costs about $15. For larger quantities, I like either of the Oxo 11 lb- or 22 lb-capacity scales.

Until you get these scales in hand, you can use the table below to convert recipes into cups and spoons. These conversions are by necessity somewhat subjective, and you might find other sources give different equivalencies. This is particularly true for flour weight-to-volume conversions, which differ widely and controversially from source to source. But the important thing to remember is that I develop all my recipes by weight, and then only convert them to volume at the end of the process (or would convert them, except as I said I’m not doing that anymore). Meaning that though a scooped cup of all-purpose flour can weigh various amounts depending on how you scoop it or how packed it might be, I expect it to weigh exactly 140g every time. Of course all of this is moot if you just use a scale.

You’ll also find useful trivia like the amount of water in butter, eggs, and liquid sweeteners, how to convert one type of yeast to another, and the formula for how to make milk from milk powder. As I think of new things to add to the chart, I’ll add them here, so feel free to bookmark this page. (And if you have ideas for things that should be on this list but are not, please suggest them below!)

[N.B.: You might notice that some of the flour weights have changed significantly here from when I first published this chart; that’s because as of 9/1/21, I’ve decided that the “spoon-and-sweep” method of measuring flour is more reproducible than the “dip-and-sweep” method that I used to use, and I have adjusted the amounts to reflect that.]

Metric-Imperial Weight Conversions:

1 ounce = 28.35g

Volume Conversions:

1 teaspoon = 5 milliliters

1 tablespoon= 3 teaspoons / 15ml

2 tablespoons = 1 fluid ounce = 30ml

1/4 cup= 4 tablespoons / 59ml

1/2 cup = 8 tablespoons / 118ml

1 cup = 16 tablespoons / 8 fl. oz. / 237ml 

1 pint = 2 cups / 473ml 

1 quart = 2 pints / 946ml (or almost 1 liter)

1 gallon = 4 quarts / 3,785ml 


1 cup = 240g/ml

1/2 cup = 120g/ml

1/3 cup = 80g/ml

1/4 cup = 60g/ml

1 tablespoon = 15g/ml

1 teaspoon = 5g/ml

1ml = 1g


1 cup all purpose or bread flour = 140g

1 cup whole grain flour = 113g

1 cup cake flour = 133g

1 tablespoon (any) flour = ~9g

1 teaspoon (any) flour = ~3g

1 cup cocoa powder = 89g

1 cup cornmeal = 148g

1 cup cornstarch (or any other fine starch) = 133g


1 cup granulated/(packed) brown sugar  = 207g

1 tablespoon gran/brown sugar = 13g

1 teaspoon gran/brown sugar = 4.3g

1 cup confectioner's sugar = 118 grams

1 tablespoon maple syrup/malt/honey/molasses = 20g

Honey, Malt Syrup = ~17% water

1 cup molasses = 340g

Corn syrup = 24% water

Maple syrup = 32% water

Dry malt powder to malt syrup conversion: 0.85:1


1 large egg = 50g

1 large white = 33g

1 large yolk = 17g

Whole eggs = 74% water

Egg white = 90% water

Egg yolk = 50% water


8 tablespoons (1 stick) = 113g

1 tablespoon = 14g

American-style butter = 16-18% water

European-style butter = 12-14% water


1 cup oil = 225g

1 tablespoon oil = about 14g

1 teaspoon oil = about 5g


1 tablespoon nonfat milk powder = 7.5g

1 teaspoon nonfat milk powder = 2.5g

Whole milk = 88% water

To make 1 liter whole milk from nonfat milk powder: 84g milk powder/ 34g butter/ 882g water

To make 1 liter nonfat milk from nonfat milk powder: 84g milk powder/ 916g water

Or add 3 tablespoons nonfat milk powder per cup of water, or 9% of water weight

1 cup yogurt = 226g

1 cup Greek yogurt = 280g


1 teaspoon active/instant/osmotolerant dry yeast = 4.2g

Instant to active yeast conversion: active = 1.25x instant

Instant to osmotolerant yeast (for >10% sugar doughs) conversion: instant = 1.5x osmotolerant

Fresh (cake) yeast to dry yeast conversion: Instant yeast = 0.4x fresh

Sourdough discard (100% hydration, fully fermented, flat): 1 cup = about 240g 


1 teaspoon sea/table salt = 5.6g

1 teaspoon (Diamond crystal) kosher salt = 2.8g

1 teaspoon (Morton’s) kosher salt = 3.6g

Chemical Leaveners/misc:

1 teaspoon baking soda/powder = 4.8g

1g/ teaspoon baking powder contains the equivalent of ~1/4g/ teaspoon baking soda

1 teaspoon diastatic malt powder = 3.25g

1 teaspoon vital wheat gluten = 2.75g

1 cup potato flakes = 80g